What are some tasks or messages that must be completed through individual communication

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What are some tasks or messages that must be completed through individual communication

The upper layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and generally are implemented only in software.

What are some tasks or messages that must be completed through individual communication

The highest layer, the application layer, is closest to the end user. Both users and application layer processes interact with software applications that contain a communications component.


The term upper layer is sometimes used to refer to any layer above another layer in the OSI model. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data transport issues. The physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in hardware and software. The lowest layer, the physical layer, is closest to the physical network medium the network cabling, for example and is responsible for actually placing information on the medium.

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Actual communication is made possible by using communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a protocol is a formal set of rules and conventions that governs how computers exchange information over a network medium.

A protocol implements the functions of one or more of the OSI layers. A wide variety of communication protocols exist. WAN protocols operate at the lowest three layers of the OSI model and define communication over the various wide-area media.

Routing protocols are network layer protocols that are responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the routers can select the proper path for network traffic.

What are some tasks or messages that must be completed through individual communication

Finally, network protocols are the various upper-layer protocols that exist in a given protocol suite. Many protocols rely on others for operation.

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For example, many routing protocols use network protocols to exchange information between routers. This concept of building upon the layers already in existence is the foundation of the OSI model.

OSI Model and Communication Between Systems Information being transferred from a software application in one computer system to a software application in another must pass through the OSI layers.

For example, if a software application in System A has information to transmit to a software application in System B, the application program in System A will pass its information to the application layer Layer 7 of System A. The application layer then passes the information to the presentation layer Layer 6which relays the data to the session layer Layer 5and so on down to the physical layer Layer 1.

At the physical layer, the information is placed on the physical network medium and is sent across the medium to System B. The physical layer of System B receives the information from the physical medium, and then its physical layer passes the information up to the data link layer Layer 2which passes it to the network layer Layer 3and so on, until it reaches the application layer Layer 7 of System B.

Finally, the application layer of System B passes the information to the recipient application program to complete the communication process.

The data link layer in System A, for example, communicates with the network layer of System A, the physical layer of System A, and the data link layer in System B.

The services provided by adjacent layers help a given OSI layer communicate with its peer layer in other computer systems.

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A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence. What OOP is NOT. As a first step I shall debunk some of the answers that I have seen.

In compiling the following list I picked out those descriptions which are not actually unique to OOP as those features which already exist in non-OO languages cannot be used to differentiate between the two.

What is Object Oriented Programming (OOP)?