Three Types of Instructional Activities Constructivism — Learning and Teaching This page begins by emphasizing that active learning occurs "whenever experiences stimulate mental activities that lead to meaningful learning," and this cognitive activity does not require physical activity. Section 2B assumes a cognitive constructivist view of learning-and-teaching:
Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent Research papers on math constructivism difficulties as well as to build writing skills: Abstract Many students with LD experience difficulties mastering the process of writing.
We examine how schools can help these children become skilled writers. Six principles designed to prevent as well as alleviate writing difficulties are presented. The mn was sneB translation: If theu go to like dutch countri sombodie might ask them something theu cold have two kinds of langage The two compositions presented above were written by Arthur Dent 1, a 5th-grade child with a learning disability LD.
The first was written at the start of 2nd grade in response to a picture of a young girl showing her father a large fish she had caught.
The second exposition was Arthur's written reply to his 5th-grade teacher's query, "Should children have to learn a second language? One, his responses are inordinately short, containing few ideas and little elaboration, and two, it is difficult to decipher his writing, because of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization miscues.
Concern about Arthur's writing capabilities initially surfaced in 1st grade. His teacher observed that he was reluctant to write, often became frustrated while writing, and avoided working or sharing his writing with others.
Teachers in 2nd and 3rd grade indicated that Arthur would hurry through writing assignments, doing little or no planning in advance, and writing quickly, taking short pauses to think about the spelling of a word or what to say next.
They further noted that it was difficult to get him to revise his written work, and when he did revise, his efforts typically focused on making the paper neater, correcting spelling miscues, and changing a word here and there.
As a consequence of his difficulties with writing, Arthur was tested for learning disabilities at the start of 4th grade. Although his intellectual capabilities were within the normal range, he scored 2 standard deviations below the mean on a norm-referenced writing test, qualifying him for special education services.
Unfortunately, Arthur's difficulties with writing are not unique. They are shared by many other children with LD. Just like Arthur, children with LD typically employ an approach to composing that minimizes the role of planning in writing. This approach to writing was illustrated in a recent Peanuts cartoon 2 where Charlie Brown's dog, Snoopy, is typing, "The light mist turned to rain.
Like Snoopy, children with LD often compose by drawing any information from memory that is somewhat appropriate, writing it down, and using each idea to stimulate the generation of the next one.
With this retrieve - and-write process little attention is directed at the needs of the audience, the constraints imposed by the topic, the development of rhetorical goals, or the organization of text.
Another Peanuts cartoon involving Snoopy as well as his most ardent critic, Lucy, captures a second similarity between Arthur and other poor writers with LD.
After typing, "Dear Sweetheart," Snoopy gives his paper to Lucy for feedback.One of the key issues to look at when examining any Learning Theory is Transfer of Learning.
Indeed, this is such an important idea, that it is a field of research in its own right. Lee V. Stiff Constructivist math is a term coined by critics of Standards -based mathematics who promote confusion about the relationships among content, pedagogy, and how students learn mathematics.
(News Bulletin, July/August ). Table 2 Research-based procedures for teaching spelling vocabulary to students with LD.
Before studying new spelling words, the student takes a pretest to identify the words that need to be studied. The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
The logical and structural nature of mathematics itself makes this study both broad and unique among its philosophical. Cognitivism and Constructivism as Theories in Mathematics Education: ”The Teachers’ Dilemma”1 Ateng’ Ogwel Mathematics Education in schools is characterized by apparently conflicting theories.
On the ’traditional’ side is cognitivism, which developed as a reaction to the little attention. The instructional strategies outlined in this chapter reflect a sampling of the most exciting and determined efforts to change the way the United States educates its citizens.