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From the beginning of amalgamation amalgamate From the beginning of amalgamation amalgamate: The disparities arising from differences between British treatment of the two provinces was pointed out by Sir Hugh Clifford, Governor General of Nigeria, who stated that while Southern Province Nigerians were educated to the extent that skilled labor was readily available and many Nigerians had become professionals, like doctors and lawyers, there were no Northern Province Nigerians who had been "sufficiently educated to enable him to fill the most minor clerical post in the office of any government department" James S.
This illustrates the extent to which history, traditions, ethnological, racial, tribal, political, social, and religious barriers all hampered the creation of a unified state of Nigeria. At the advent of Nigerian independence on 1 Octoberwhen Great Britain gave up colonial power over Nigeria forty-six years after amalgamation, three regions based on ethnic groupings were created to comprise the independent nation of Nigeria.
The Nigerian Civil War, between the self-declared secessionist nation of Biafra and the independent nation of Nigeria, began on 30 May and ended on 12 January Though there were complex multiple causes, the primary cause, as reflected in a statement made by the Igbo Eastern Military Governor, Lieutenant Colonel Chukumeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, was interethnic Help with french homework To compound the underlying ethnic hostilities, a controversial census ina disputed postindependence election inand explosive western regional elections in worsened hostilities, deepened secessionist agitations and triggered first military coup on 15 Januaryled by Igbo eastern region Major Chukwuma "Kaduna" Nzeogwu.
Later ina countercoup led by Igbo Major-General Johnson Umunakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi abolished the federal structure and introduced a unitary system of government in Nigeria: A "revenge coup" on 29 July resulted in the assassination of Major-General Aguiyi-Ironsi at Ibadan putting an end to his unitary government.
A summit of military leaders of the opposing factions was held at Aburi, Ghana, beginning 4 January There, they agreed to a confederal system of government.
This agreement was never implemented, as a consequence, after failed efforts to negotiate peace, on 30 MayLieutenant Colonel Chukumeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Eastern Military Governor, unilaterally declared independence from Nigeria. The new independent nation was called Biafra after the Bight of Biafra, also called the Bight of Bonny a "bight" is a geographical feature that is defined as a large, sheltered, shallow bay.
The war was executed mostly in Biafran territory in the southeast leading to massive civilian deaths and property destruction. Strongly outnumbered and fighting against superior technology, the Biafrans were encircled, isolated and blockaded by the nationalist Nigerian forces.
The consequence was starvation, mass death, and displacement of Igbos. With the Nigerian blockade cutting off the Biafrans from their expected source of oil revenue from the Rivers state, the Biafrans suffered loss of life and malnutrition.
For a variety of state reasons, global humanitarian aid was scarce and inadequate, leaving Biafrans without food, medicines, or clothing.
The Nigerian conquest of the city of Owerri on 6 January signaled the collapse of Biafra's resistance, ending their Civil War. Lieutenant Colonel Chukumeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, the leader who in declared their secession, fled to the Ivory Coast.
We accept the existing administrative and political structure of the federation of Nigeria. The Republic of Biafra hereby ceases to exist" Oko qtd. While there was international debate over whether the Nigerian Civil War had represented genocide of the Igbo peoples, it was determined by the international community that, while the death and destruction in Igbo land reached devastating proportions, the intent of the Nigerian government was not systematic destruction of a targeted people in genocide, as had occurred in Rewanda and Germany, but rather a determined effort to end secession and thereby preserve a unified nation of Nigeria, as occurred in the American Civil War.
The outcomes of the Civil War's aftermath in the Reconciliation, Reconstruction, and Rehabilitation program achieved some of the desperately overdue goals of a unified Nigeria, though fulfillment of promises was aborted by subsequent corruption and further military coups: Gale Cengage, Further Reading:To help get started, we recommend visiting BBC Languages French.
On a level appropriate for a student seeking college homework help, there are two great online tutorials for introductory French offered by MIT's OpenCourseWare and titled French 1 and French II.
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Get an expert tutor now. Interesting facts, images and videos about World War II for primary school children to use in topic-work.