Overview - This is an account of the evolution of naval fighters for fleet air defense and the parallel evolution of the ships operating and controlling them, concentrating on the three main exponents of carrier warfare, the Royal Navy, the US Navy, and the Imperial Japanese Navy. It describes the earliest efforts from the s but it was not until radar allowed the direction of fighters that organized air defense became possible. Thus major naval-air battles of the Second World War like Midway, the Pedestal convoy, the Philippine Sea and Okinawa are portrayed as tests of the new technology.
As the acute strains and difficulties of the Defensive Phase, with its inevitable but tragic toll of Allied maritime losses receded, the opportunity to keep and to preserve better records improved in the British services. Conversely, as the tide of the enemy's offensive and success began to ebb, his written records showed some deterioration, and his losses produced gaps in them.
To fill the gaps in the German records has proved no easy task, and I have relied more than ever on Commander M. He and his assistants have shown uncanny skill in tracing what happened when the original sources, such as the logs of enemy ships, were lost when those ships were sunk.
I find it hard to express the sum of my gratitude for the thorough and painstaking work of this nature undertaken on my behalf. When the first draft of this second volume was less than half finished I was lucky enough An overview of maritime air war obtain the help of Commander Geoffrey Hare, R.
His enthusiasm for the work and his thoroughness in checking the many obscure points which inevitably arise have taken an immense burden off me; and without his assistance the preparation of this volume would never have progressed so fast or so smoothly.
I also owe a great debt to my colleagues who are engaged on the campaign volumes of this series, Captains G. Addis, Royal Navy, who have generously allowed me to exploit their own research in the fields with which they are particularly concerned, and to use it for my own purposes.
They have also read and criticised the chapters dealing with the maritime war in their own theatres. Without their help it would have been impossible for one writer to cover an ever-widening field of battle. It has not been easy to decide how much space should be given to operations which were wholly or mainly undertaken by the United States Navy.
That service's tremendous accomplishments are being fully and graphically described in Professor S. Morison's many volumes of the 'History of United States Naval Operations', and it would plainly have been redundant for me to duplicate what he has written.
I have not found it possible to work to any precise rules regarding the inclusion, condensation or omission of American --xiv-- fought battles. I have indeed not tried to formulate such rules, but have instead tried to work to what seemed to me sensible, if arbitrary, principles. Thus, if the fate of important British territories was concerned, or if the British Empire's maritime forces, even though under American command, were present in appreciable strength, I have felt it to be justifiable to record the doings of the latter at some length.
But if, as in the North and Central Pacific theatres the strategy was American-born and the forces came almost wholly from the same country's services, I have dealt with events briefly, even cursorily. It thus happens that more space is devoted to the Battle of the Java Sea than to the campaign in the Aleutians, or to the great battles of Coral Sea and Midway.
The summary manner in which the latter are here treated does not, of course, indicate any desire to belittle the importance of those battles, nor to conceal admiration for the manner in which they were fought. Although after the early months of the Pacific War receives relatively little space in this volume, it is intended to deal more fully with events in that vast theatre after the British Pacific Fleet arrived there; but that does not occur until my final volume.
I must, however, acknowledge my debt to Professor Morison, not only for the value that his books have been to me, but for his kindness in answering many questions concerning operations in which his country's ships as well as British ones were involved.
It was to be expected that criticisms of my first volume would reach me after publication, but I have been encouraged by the fact that they have been generous rather than severe. It has been very noticeable that critics have regarded my sins as being more those of omission than of commission, particularly with regard to events in which they themselves took part.
They may perhaps not fully realise the extent to which compression has to be applied to keep these volumes within their appointed compass; nor that my charter is not to tell the story of naval operations in full detail as was that of Sir Julian Corbett and his successors after the warbut to describe the War at Sea as a whole, and from a two-service angle.
In the period covered by this book maritime operations fall naturally into three approximately equal phases, namely from the 1st of January to the 31st of Julyfrom the 1st of August to the end of that year, and from the 1st of January to the 31st of May To help the reader to relate what is here described to other important events, not directly connected with the war at sea, I have inserted at the beginning of each of the three phases a chronological summary of such events.
Once again I must acknowledge my debt to the many officers of --xv-- all services who have read my drafts and given me their experienced advice. My first volume seems to have penetrated to distant lands, from some of which I have received most interesting letters containing recollections which have been of use to me in this second volume.
The generosity of these correspondents has touched me, showing as it does the warmth of the affection felt towards the Royal Navy by those who served in it, sometimes only temporarily, during the war. I wish particularly to thank Mrs L. Rosewarne for her permission to reveal, in the heading to Chapter XV, the name of the writer of the famous and very moving 'Airman's letter to his Mother', and Mrs B.
I am once again indebted to the Director, Mr F. Carr, and the Trustees of the National Maritime Museum for permission to reproduce certain of the works of British War Artists, the originals of which are the property of the Museum, and to Mr A.
Charge of the Imperial War Museum for assistance in selecting illustrations. Reinicke, formerly of the German Navy, has allowed me to reproduce certain photographs in his possession. Bellairs have again given me quite invaluable help. Hurford of the Admiralty has once again helped with the laborious but essential work of indexing the book.
Finally, I cannot close this foreword without repeating that without the untiring advice of Professor J. Butler, the editor of this whole series, this volume, like the first, could never have reached the public.In addition, D.
M. Schurman and John Hattendorf edited and wrote an introduction to Corbett's previously unpublished official study Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War, . Conduct offensive and defensive operations associated with the maritime domain including achieving and maintaining sea control, to include subsurface, surface, land, air, space, and cyberspace.
CHAPTER 1 MARITIME PREPOSITIONING FORCE OVERVIEW General A Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) operation is the rapid deployment and assembly of a Marine air-ground task. Maritime power projection _______________ describe(s) a military operation launched from the sea with the primary purpose of introducing a landing force ashore to accomplish an assigned mission.
Amphibious operations. Overview- This is an account of the evolution of naval fighters for fleet air defense and the parallel evolution of the ships operating and controlling them, concentrating on the three main exponents of carrier warfare, the Royal Navy, the US Navy, and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Thus major naval-air battles of the Second World War like. Summary of the Maritime Campaign Once Operation Desert Storm began, the Coalition's maritime campaign in the northern Persian Gulf, including the liberation of the first Kuwaiti territory, the capture of the first EPW, and the threat of an amphibious assault, focused Iraqi attention to the sea rather than to the desert to the west.