Balfour castle was built upon their ancient possessions, in the vale or strath of the Orr, a tributary of the Leven, near their confluence. Many illustrious descendants with the surname of Balfour have been ennobled and three peerages, namely, the baronies of Burleigh and Kilwinning in Scotland, and of Balfour of Clonawley in Ireland. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were a greater number of heritors in Fife named Balfour than of any other surname. A glance at the fife telephone directory shows only 15 people with the name Balfour.
Roman funerals and burial In ancient Romethe eldest surviving male of the A contemplation upon flowers by henry, the pater familias, was summoned to the death-bed, where he attempted to catch and inhale the last breath of the decedent. Funerals of the socially prominent usually were undertaken by professional undertakers called libitinarii.
No direct description has been passed down of Roman funeral rites. These rites usually included a public procession to the tomb or pyre where the body was to be cremated.
The right to carry the masks in public eventually was restricted to families prominent enough to have held curule magistracies.
Mimes, dancers, and musicians hired by the undertakers, and professional female mourners, took part in these processions. Less well-to-do Romans could join benevolent funerary societies collegia funeraticia that undertook these rites on their behalf.
Nine days after the disposal of the body, by burial or cremation, a feast was given cena novendialis and a libation poured over the grave or the ashes. Since most Romans were cremated, the ashes typically were collected in an urn and placed in a niche in a collective tomb called a columbarium literally, "dovecote".
During this nine-day period, the house was considered to be tainted, funesta, and was hung with Taxus baccata or Mediterranean Cypress branches to warn passersby. At the end of the period, the house was swept out to symbolically purge it of the taint of death. The Romans prohibited cremation or inhumation within the sacred boundary of the city pomeriumfor both religious and civil reasons, so that the priests might not be contaminated by touching a dead body, and that houses would not be endangered by funeral fires.
Restrictions on the length, ostentation, expense of, and behaviour during funerals and mourning gradually were enacted by a variety of lawmakers. Often the pomp and length of rites could be politically or socially motivated to advertise or aggrandise a particular kin group in Roman society.
This was seen as deleterious to society and conditions for grieving were set.
For instance, under some laws, women were prohibited from loud wailing or lacerating their faces and limits were introduced for expenditure on tombs and burial clothes.
The Romans commonly built tombs for themselves during their lifetime. Hence these words frequently occur in ancient inscriptions, V.
The tombs of the rich usually were constructed of marblethe ground enclosed with walls, and planted around with trees.
But common sepulchres usually were built below ground, and called hypogea. There were niches cut out of the walls, in which the urns were placed; these, from their resemblance to the niche of a pigeon-house, were called columbaria.
North American funerals[ edit ] A floral name tribute spelling out the word "Mum" at a funeral in England. Within the United States and Canada, in most cultural groups and regions, the funeral rituals can be divided into three parts: A western-style funeral motorcade for a member of a high-ranking military family in South Korea.
Visitation[ edit ] At the visitation also called a " viewing ", " wake " or "calling hours"in Christian or secular Western custom, the body of the deceased person or decedent is placed on display in the casket also called a coffin, however almost all body containers are caskets.
The viewing often takes place on one or two evenings before the funeral. This practice continues in many areas of Ireland and Scotland.
In recent times there has been more variation in what the decedent is dressed in — some people choose to be dressed in clothing more reflective of how they dressed in life. The body will often be adorned with common jewelry, such as watches, necklaces, brooches, etc. The jewelry may be taken off and given to the family of the deceased prior to burial or be buried with the deceased.
Jewelry has to be removed before cremation in order to prevent damage to the crematory. The body may or may not be embalmed, depending upon such factors as the amount of time since the death has occurred, religious practices, or requirements of the place of burial.
A more recent trend is to create a DVD with pictures and video of the deceased, accompanied by music, and play this DVD continuously during the visitation. The viewing is either "open casket", in which the embalmed body of the deceased has been clothed and treated with cosmetics for display; or "closed casket", in which the coffin is closed.
The coffin may be closed if the body was too badly damaged because of an accident or fire or other trauma, deformed from illness, if someone in the group is emotionally unable to cope with viewing the corpse, or if the deceased did not wish to be viewed.
In cases such as these, a picture of the deceased, usually a formal photo, is placed atop the casket. The tombstone of Yossele the Holy Miser. According to Jewish bereavement tradition, the dozens of stones on his tombstone mark respect for the Holy Miser.
However, this step is foreign to Judaism; Jewish funerals are held soon after death preferably within a day or two, unless more time is needed for relatives to comeand the corpse is never displayed.
Torah law forbids embalming.Religion Spirituality of Gardening, Contemplative Gardens, Gardening and Piety God in the Garden, Sacred Gardens, Gardening and Meditation Gardening as a Spiritual Practice, Nature and the Divine.
THE DEVIL'S DICTIONARY. AUTHOR'S PREFACE. The Devil's Dictionary was begun in a weekly paper in , and was continued in a desultory way at long intervals until In that year a large part of it was published in covers with the title The Cynic's Word Book, a name which the author had not the power to reject or happiness to approve.
Poets' Corner - K, L - Catalog of online works indexed alphabetically by author. LETTERS OF CATHERINE BENINCASA. ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA AS SEEN IN HER LETTERS.
I. The letters of Catherine Benincasa, commonly known as St. Catherine of Siena, have become an Italian classic; yet perhaps the first thing in them to strike a reader is their unliterary character. HISTORY OF ASHTABULA COUNTY, OHIO. son, Henry L., was born in Waterbury, and his other children, Julia Anna, Lucius, Sarah, who died young.
Henry King, English bishop and poet, baptised in January Henry King died at Chichester on the 3oth of September